A TDR (time domain reflectometer) uses a pulse to “fired” down the cable. It requires 2 conductors running in parallel to operate to identify the change in impedance. Any connection, change of cable type, break in the cable, or fault will cause a change of impedance. Each type of change has a different effect on the display of the TDR; a positive reflection shows a higher impedance, a lower reflection shows a lower impedance.

Velocity Factor (VF)

VF = Velocity of Propagation / Speed of light (300 m/μs)

Handheld TDR U612 vs TEK TelScout

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True-RMS device (RMS = root mean square)

Resolution refers to a minimum reading can be measured. In 4.000 range, the resolution is 0.001, it is usually called a "word."

Accuracy is generally called "precision" or “uncertainty”, eg. ± (1.5% + 3), which specifies the measurement uncertainty of "measured value of 1.5% plus a “word””, described as follows:

The full range of 4.000, for the measurement of 2, the uncertainty is to be calculated:

± (2.000 × 1.5% + 0.003) = ± 0.033

Electrical measurement categories are used to rate test instruments on their ability to resist a voltage spike, which is applied through a specific resistance. The higher the category, the more risk there that a high voltage can overload a circuit and cause electrical and physical damage. Usually, the higher the CAT (category) rating, the safer the rating.

CAT I is for measurements of voltages from specially protected secondary circuits. Such voltage measurements include signal levels, special equipment, limited-energy parts of equipment, circuits powered by regulated low-voltage sources, and electronics.

CAT II refers to local-level electrical distribution, such as that provided by a standard wall outlet or plug in loads (for example, 115 AC voltage for U.S. or 200 AC voltage for Europe). Examples of Measurement Category II are measurements performed on household appliances, portable tools, and similar modules.

CAT III refers to measurements on hard-wired equipment in fixed installations, distribution boards, and circuit breakers. Other examples are wiring, including cables, bus bars, junction boxes, switches, socket outlets in the fixed installation, and stationary motors with permanent connections to fixed installations.

CAT IV refers to origin of installation or utility level measurements on primary over-current protection devices and on ripple control units.